Samples of indoor air were collected in Hopcalite tubes with a personal air-sampling pump (Gilian) that operated for 12 hours at a flow rate of 0.5 liter per minute. *, Factors Contributing to Mercury Concentrations in the Air on Multiple Linear-Regression Analysis.*. Mercury vapor concentrations inside buildings . 1850′s: Mercury in Medicine Up to now, approximately one third of all interior latex paint in the United States has contained mercury.3 , 4, In August 1989, the symptoms of acrodynia developed in a four-year-old boy in Michigan 10 days after the inside of his home was painted with 64 liters (17 gallons) of interior latex paint containing phenylmercuric acetate. Arch Environ Health 1973; 26:249–52. Mercury exposure evaluations and their correlation with urine mercury excretions. Am J Dis Child 1951; 81:335–73. 11. They may include muscle weakness, poor coordination, numbness in the hands and feet, skin rashes, anxiety, memory problems, trouble speaking, trouble hearing, or trouble seeing. Unfortunate the element is so fascinating to look and has some truly extraordinary uses. Washington, D.C.: SRI International, 1988. http://www.ehjournal.net/content/8/1/2. Roels H, Gennart JP, Lauwerys R, Buchet JP, Malchaire J, Bernard A. . Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1980; 41:528–31. The Romans operated a mercury mine in Spain with prisoner and slave labor. Swensson A, Ulfvarson U. . Samples of liquid paint, vacuum-cleaner dust, and urine were analyzed by cold-vapor atomic absorption. Adjusted Urinary Mercury Concentrations in Persons Exposed to Paint Containing Mercury and Those Not Exposed. More mercury was detected in the dust samples from vacuum-cleaner bags in the exposed households than in those from the unexposed households. The vaporization of mercury from paint containing mercury compounds may be due to the presence of inorganic metallic mercury, which can be formed during the manufacture of the compounds or during light-catalyzed decomposition of the compounds.39 , 40. Three different types: red lead Pb3O4, lead chromate (yellow) PbCrO4, and white lead Pb3(CO3)2(OH)2. 5. ), Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control, Centers for Disease Control, Atlanta; the Environmental Response Branch, Environmental Protection Agency, Edison, N.J. Humans have been using mercury for various uses for much of history. Between 1850 and the 1960’s, the Santa Barbara mine ceased production and mercury mining began in two other regions: in Monte Amiata, Italy, and throughout California in the United States. . Leg cramps, a generalized rash, pruritus, sweating, tachycardia, an intermittent low-grade fever, marked personality change, erythema and desquamation of the hands, feet, and nose, weakness of the pelvic and pectoral girdles, and lower-extremity nerve dysfunction developed sequentially. 39. Sensitive indicators of inorganic mercury toxicity . Paint in 26 cans (90 percent) contained more than 1.5 mmol of mercury per liter. Methods for chemical analysis of water and wastes. The median adjusted urinary mercury concentration was 4.7 nmol per millimole of creatinine in the 65 exposed persons (range, 1.4 to 66.5) and 1.1 nmol per millimole of creatinine in the 28 unexposed persons (range, 0.02 to 3.9) (Table 3). I assist in teaching a leadership course on how to make organizational changes that increase social, environmental, and economic sustainability. Preliminary health assessment. One nanomole of mercury per millimole of creatinine thus equals 201 μg of mercury per 113 g of creatinine, which is 1.77 μg of mercury per gram of creatinine. High fructose corn syrup is used in food products to enhance shelf life. Address reprint requests to Dr. Etzel at Mail Stop F28, Centers for Disease Control, 1600 Clifton Rd., Atlanta, GA 30306. The heavy metal additive also decreases the amount of time that the paint takes to dry, makes the paint more durable, and causes the paint to be more moisture resistant. 37. Jacobs MB, Goldwater LJ. Before 1850, the world’s supply of usable mercury was extracted from three mines located in Almaden, Spain (dating back to the Romans times); Idria, Slovenia; and Santa Barbara, Peru (which the Spanish controlled during colonial times). MMWR 1990; 39:125–6. With the passage of this act, mercury-free alkaline batteries became the national standard for most types of batteries. Mercury exposure from house paint — a controlled study on humans . However, the chlor-alkali industry still accounts for 1% of total mercury emissions to the atmosphere and potentially a much larger contribution to water and land releases. Mercury amalgams were also used in dental fillings. . The dust samples from the exposed households had a higher mercury content (median, 188.4 nmol per kilogram; range, 26.4 to 267.7) than those from the unexposed households (median, 16.9; range, 9.5 to 64.8; P = 0.05). Gilding is a decorative technique for applying a very thin coating of gold to solid surfaces such as metal (most common), wood, porcelain, or stone.A gilded object is also described as "gilt". To extract mercury from cinnabar, the mineral is heated. Decision of the administrator on reconsideration. The mercury surrounds the gold, forming shiny pellets that workers then burn. Paint driers and additives. It is used in the form of gaseous vapors in vapor lamps, neon signs, and fluorescent lamps. Anonymous. The key ingredient was mercury—and the medication was well on its way to poisoning Lincoln when he stopped taking it in 1861, says a team of researchers in a study published in the Summer 2001 issue of Perspectives in Biology and Medicine. The hardened molten surface has stayed unchanged over the years since the formation of the planet. The model r2 was 0.72 (Table 2). . Mercury exposure from interior latex paint — Michigan . Stay connected to what's important in medical research and clinical practice, Subscribe to the most trusted and influential source ofmedical knowledge. i need it for a project. Clarkson TW, Friberg L, Nordberg GF, Sager PR, eds. VIII. ); the University of California at San Diego School of Medicine, San Diego (D.S.C. Your email address will not be published. Elemental mercury exposure:peripheral neurotoxicity . Kumamoto, Japan; Kumamoto University, 1968. Connolly EM, Jebens AM, Linak AJ, Dean JC. Three samples from one unopened paint can remaining in their home contained an average of 4.7 mmol of mercury per liter. The U.S. paint industry: technology trends, markets, raw materials. 2. Opening all windows and doors decreased the concentration to 1.5 nmol per cubic meter; however, if the doors and windows were then closed, the concentration of mercury in the air returned to the earlier (unventilated) value within three hours.38 The investigators concluded that mercury would be emitted at a rate of 499 nmol per day for 7 1/2 years. My research investigates how models are used in sustainability negotiations. 2nd ed. 36. SAS Institute Inc. SAS user's guide: statistics, version 5 edition. 16. The content of this site is intended for health care professionals. 15. Since 13 of the 19 exposed families included a child ≤10 years of age, we selected only unexposed families with at least one child ≤10 years of age for comparison. During the Industrial Revolution, various inventions increased the demand for mercury. In adults, chronic exposure to mercury vapors can cause nerve-conduction delays, tremor, insomnia, loss of appetite, and irritability (4,7). It has been banned in some countries like the US. Paint samples were obtained from all the homes of the exposed families, and each home contained at least one can of paint that contained ≥1.5 mmol of mercury per liter. The median air concentration in the exposed households was 10.0 nmol of mercury per cubic meter (range, <0.5 to 49.9). Prepare Your Mercury for Touch Up Paint. Approximately three weeks after the initial urine samples were collected, a second sample of first morning urine was obtained from selected exposed persons: all 15 children ≤10 years of age with an initial urinary mercury concentration ≥50 nmol per liter or 5.6 nmol per millimole of creatinine; all 10 people over 10 years old with initial urinary mercury concentrations ≥100 nmol per liter or 11.3 nmol per millimole of creatinine; and 14 people arbitrarily chosen from families with a person meeting one of these criteria. HELP! To locate mercury in the home, start by checking your gauges and meters. Emissions of both elemental or inorganic mercury can occur from coal-fired power plants, burning of municipal and medical waste, and from factories that use mercury. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J 1975; 36:725–33. One unexposed person was excluded from analysis because she had collected paint samples from exposed homes. Thus, proper ventilation during painting must be ensured. The latter coincided with the Gold Rush. The use of mercury in paint has continued into the modern area, although in recent history, mercury was added as a … Urinary concentrations may not adequately reflect the current concentration in the air because of the long half-life of mercury in the body (40 to 60 days) and because mercury may be eliminated by unmeasured routes, such as sweat.14 , 41 Also, individual exposure to mercury may vary with the time spent in painted rooms, the depth and frequency of inhalation, the degree of ventilation in the room, and the likely decrease in mercury vapors over time. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2001/07/0717_lincoln.html. Because of alcohol’s high coefficient of expansion, mercury was chosen as a better candidate for filling thermometers. Curtis HA, Ferguson SD, Kell RL, Samuel AH. Urinary mercury concentrations, both adjusted and unadjusted, were significantly higher among the exposed persons than among the unexposed persons (P<0.001) (Fig. 18. Many paint companies have used phenylmercuric acetate as a preservative to prolong the shelf life of interior latex paint. Washington, D.C.: Environmental Protection Agency, 1976. It’s also common in many household items such as fluorescent lights, batteries, and latex paint. By the early 1900s, the main uses of mercury were in making scientific equipment, recovering gold and silver, manufacturing fulminate and vermilion, and felt-making. In 1859, a new organization was formed as a result of the internal strife over the use of mercury in dentistry — the American Dental Association. Persons on the list were called until 19 families meeting the above criteria had been identified. Since 1960, other mines have opened in the Soviet block countries, China, Kazakhstan, Algeria, Mexico, and the US state of Nevada. 1. Mercury from chlor-alkali plants: measured concentrations in food product sugar 8. This made lead-based paint ideal for use in homes, on metal exposed to the elements, and even children’s toys. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1977. The Mercury-Containing and Rechargeable Battery Management Act of 1996 prohibits the use of mercury in all other types of batteries. Environmental chemistry. The model r2 was 0.29. Tremor, decreased short-term memory, and delays in motor- and sensory-nerve conduction have been documented.19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Exposure to mercury was also the probable cause of neuromyasthenia (headache, weakness, unsteady gait, tremor, and psychological depression) in 59 workers after the application of paint containing mercury and the initial use of a boiler for heat.33, In this study, the median concentration of mercury in indoor air in exposed households (10 nmol per cubic meter) exceeded the acceptable residential concentration of 2.5 nmol per cubic meter suggested by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry34 and was more than 600 times higher than the average concentration of mercury in outdoor air in the Detroit area (0.015 nmol per cubic meter) (Warner PO, Wayne County Health Department: personal communication). Rosenman KD, Valciukas JA, Glickman L, Meyers BR, Cinotti A. . Aristotle is credited with the oldest known written record of mercury (in an academic text dating back to sometime during the 4th century BCE), in which he referred to it as “fluid silver” and “quicksilver.” This academic text conveyed what alchemists of his day believed: that mercury was the component in all metals that gave them their “metal-ness.” At that time, it was used in ceremonies and to treat skin disorders. Specific information was gathered about possible sources of mercury exposure for all family members and about the painting history and other characteristics of the home. 1 Answer. Mercury is used in thermometers and traditional blood pressure monitors. DOI: 10.1056/NEJM199010183231603, Tap into groundbreaking research and clinically relevant insights. Am J Ind Med 1985; 7:45–71. Code of federal regulations: title 29, part 1910.1000. We are indebted to the families who agreed to participate in this study, as well as to the following persons who gave us valuable assistance: Regine Aronow, M.D., director, and the staff of the Poison Control Center, Children's Hospital, Detroit; Ms. Terri Dibble and Mr. Jerry Wright, Oakland County Health Department; Mr. Bruce Davis, Wayne County Health Department; Ms. Louise Fabinsky, Region V, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry; Benjamin Johnson, M.D., Michael O'Keefe, and James Bedford, Ph.D., Michigan Department of Public Health; Charles P. Cubbage, Ph.D., Michigan Department of Agriculture; and Sue Binder, M.D., Edmond Maes, Ph.D., Jeff Sacks, M.D., Mark McClanahan, Ph.D., John Liddle, Ph.D., and Henry Falk, M.D., all from the Center for Environmental Health and Injury Control of the Centers for Disease Control. Of note, individuals who made felt hats displayed signs of dementia as a result of mercury poisoning. Time-weighted average (TWA) mercury exposures and urine mercury levels . 1. (EPA-600/4–79–020.). Psychological performance and long-term exposure to mercury vapors . All the study families lived in the northern and western suburbs of Detroit. Median Urinary Mercury Concentrations in Persons Exposed to Paint Containing Mercury and in Those Not Exposed, According to Age. keep it up! Unadjusted values were reported in much of the early literature and in the only comprehensive study of expected background concentrations of urinary mercury.13 Concentrations adjusted for creatinine have been used to reduce the variability of results in spot urine samples.14. Paint is a common home improvement item on the market today which is a potentially hazardous household product. . . Because we did not determine when the bags had last been emptied or changed, the collection time our findings represent is unknown. Iyer K, Goodgold J, Eberstein A, Berg P. . Mercury poisoning is a type of metal poisoning due to exposure to mercury. A second urine sample was obtained from 39 exposed persons. We found that homes recently painted with one brand of interior latex paint containing mercury had significantly higher mercury concentrations in indoor air than homes not recently painted with a paint containing mercury. The decision represented a voluntary end to this use of mercury and was made jointly with the National Paint and Coatings Association and the manufacturers of the mercury compounds. 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